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Thailand History



Thailand History

Thailand means the ‘land of the free ones’ and over its 800 years history, it can be found of being the only country from the South-East Asia which wasn’t colonized.

Thailand history is divided in five main periods: the Nanchao period (650-1250) when the Thais made the Central Hill under the sovereignty of the Khmer Empire and probably, accepted its culture.

The Thais made their independent state Sukhothai around 1238, which marks the beginning of the Sukhothai period.

This period lasted from 1238 till 1378, the Thais beginning to impose themselves as dominant force in region in the 13 th century, gradually expressing their independence in front of the already existing Mon and Khmer.


Called by its leaders ‘the beginning of the happiness’, this period is often considered the golden era of the Thailand history, an ideal Thai state, in a land governed by paternal and good-natured kings, the most famous being the king Ramkamhaeng the Great. The Ayutthaya period (1350-1767): in the 17 th century, the Siam started to have diplomatic and commercial relations with the Western countries.


History Thailand

In 1767, a Burmese invasion managed to capture Ayutthaya. Despite the overwhelming victory, Burmese didn’t manage to control the Siam for long.


A young general called Phya Taksin and his descendants passed the Burmese barrier and evaded in Chantaburi.


The Thon Buri period (1767-1772): the general Taskin, as he is known, decided to move the capital from Ayutthaya in a place closer to the sea, which will facilitate the foreign commerce, will assure the guns procurement and will make the defensive and the withdraw easier, in the case of a new Burmese attack.


He put the new capital at Thon Buri on the Western shore of the Chao Phraya River. Taksin’s reign was not easy; the lack of central authority led to the fast disintegration of the kingdom but during the Taksin reign the provinces reunited. The Rattanakosin period (1782 till present): after the Taksin’s death, general Chakri became the first king of the Chakri dynasty, Rama I, reigning from 1782 till 1809.


His first action as king was to move the royal capital along the Thon Buri River to Bangkok and built the Great Palace. Rama II continued the restoration begun by his predecessor. The King Nang Klao, Rama III reopened the relations with the Western countries and developed the commerce with China. The King Mongkut, Rama IV, finished the treaties with the European countries, avoided the colonization and established the modern Thailand. The king Chulalongkorn, Rama V, continued his father’s tradition of reforms, abolished the slavery and improved the public welfare and the administrative system.

Thailand History

The mandatory education and other educational reforms were introduced by the King Vajiravudh, Rama VI. During the king Prajadhipok’s reign (1925-1935), Thailand moved from absolutist monarchy to constitutional monarchy. The king abdicated and was succeeded by his nephew king Ananda Mahidol (1935-1946). The country’s name was changed from Siam in Thailand and had a democratic government, in 1939.



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